This lecture gives an introduction on the relevant timescales in the dynamics of solids and their application.
It focuses on ultrafast phenomena from picoseconds to femtoseconds, which are relevant for modern physics.
It combines the explanation of fundamental concepts with brief descriptions of the relevant experimental techniques using ultrashort photon pulses ranging from optical lasers to x-ray sources.
Topics like pump-probe state-of-the-art photoemission, x-ray spectroscopies and x-ray diffraction are addressed.