Questions of minority protection, separation of powers, or inclusion through power-sharing are crucial to current conflicts in many states around the world – from Belgium to Ethiopia, from Iraq to Bosnia and Herzegovina, from Nepal to Syria. Federalism and decentralisation therefore continue to be discussed as instruments for resolving violent and non-violent conflicts, for dealing with state failure, and for contributing to democratisation. However, federalisation processes are neither linear, nor do they always result in a fully functional federal system. How can federal and decentralised structures contribute to peace-building and democratisation? What do the cases of Nepal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Iraq teach us about the advantages and disadvantages of federal structures? Which other factors contribute to ending violence and to ensuring a transition to democratic governance in conflict-affected regions? How do federal systems, including in countries such as Switzerland, adapt to new challenges? What is the future of federalism and decentralisation in the 21st century? These and other questions will be dealt with at the Summer University on Federalism, Decentralisation and Conflict Resolution 2024.